In Carol Dweck’s micro lecture for Stanford Alumni (2014), she defines a fixed mindset as believing that one only has a certain amount of “stuff” and that they cannot get any more. In contrast, a growth mindset sees the opportunity to grow and develop more “stuff” through effort and persistence. Dweck goes further to describe how these two mindsets influences typical goals, where fixed mindset students strive to never look “dumb,” whereas growth mindset students strive to continually improve. If you are an educator that has asked your class a question and then received the Zoom stare where not a single student is willing to even guess, there is a high chance that you are looking at a group with fixed mindsets. Here are a couple of strategies that you can implement and try to combat it.
Strategies to Develop Growth Mindsets
Become Positive About Learning
Business research suggests that optimistic people are more motivated and thus more likely to achieve their goals (Wilson & Conyers, 2015), and that optimism is one of the driving aspects of a growth mindset. In Dweck’s research, she describes the pessimism versus optimism dichotomy as the “tyranny of now” versus the “power of yet” (Stanford Alumni, 2014). Those stuck in the “tyranny of now” fixate on their current state: “I’m not good at that,” or “I’m not smart enough for this.” They need someone to help them shift their perspective by adding “yet” to their thoughts.
There are a couple of ways that educators can help their students move from “now” to “yet.” One activity from Lexia Learning (n.d.) recommends that the educator describe a variety of situations and ask the class what someone with a fixed mindset might say in each situation, and then talk about the growth mindset alternative phrases might be. Another recommendation comes from Wilson and Conyers (2015) who suggest introducing the students to the CIA model. The “C” stands for Control; students need to be aware of their thoughts to recognize when it drifts towards pessimism so that that can then take control of their thinking and adjust. The “I” stands for Influence; students need to be aware what and who influences them and how they influence them, and look for those that encourage their optimism and the effectiveness of hard work. The “A” stands for Acknowledgement; students need to be aware of areas in their life that they have limited control and minimize the time and energy they put into those situations.
Schedule Productive Struggle
We know from Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) that (1) students make the most growth when they are pushed outside of their comfort zone, and (2) when students are pushed outside of their comfort zone they need support from a knowledge source. Cowen (2016) suggests that educators should encourage “productive struggle” by starting each lesson with a protected amount of time for independent work. As the lesson progresses, students begin working in pairs and then small groups before finally working with the class as a whole. While this would seem to go in the face of Vygotsky’s ZPD, since he notes the importance of social learning, it is actually quite clever. This process pushes the students outside of their comfort zone, asking them to face a challenge and be okay with not knowing exactly how to solve it. Over time, the students slowly gain supports which might help them solve the problem, which helps determine the least amount of support necessary for that particular struggle. For students that have their struggle shift into frustration, Cowen (2016) suggests having a plan for multiple entry points into the problem; finding out how the student is stuck and then suggesting a different way to approach the problem - not giving hints.
Provide Better Feedback
An important aspect of developing growth mindset is instilling that failure and taking risks are how one grows and achieves a goal. How someone perceives these two actions is greatly influenced by the type of feedback they receive. In Dweck’s research, she found that when students were praised for their intelligence, it actually made them less like likely to take risks for fear of failure (Stanford Alumni, 2014). They feel pressure to maintain their persona of being “smart,” but intelligence in this context is something outside their real of control. Conversely, students that were praised for their persistence and effort throughout challenges developed confidence in themselves, which encouraged them to take more risk. Educators that encourage growth mindset see learning as a progression and are constantly assessing the students on their progress rather than their explicit knowledge. This means that feedback given to students should also focus on process rather than product. Conley (2014) provides a variety of examples of what is commonly said, how it can be modified, and what is the research behind it.
|You Say…||You Could Say…||Why?|
|Good job!||I can really see your effort in revision.||Praising effort and process encourages writers to keep trying. (Dweck)|
|You’re a good writer!||Those drafts paid off in sentence variety and imagery.||Encouraging growth instead of fixed mindset makes for happier people in charge of their progress. (Dweck)|
|You don’t know how to use semicolons.||You haven’t mastered semicolons yet.||The power of yet suggests growth and mastery. (Dweck and Pink)|
|Please revise.||Improved topic sentences and transitions between paragraphs would improve your paper’s structure and readability.||Specific reader-focused feedback might seem nitpicky, but helps writers feel purpose of revision.|
|Write a persuasive essay.||Persuade your principal/Congressman/parents to do a specific action.||Writers need a real purpose and real audience to write their best work. (Pink)|
|Read Heart of Darkness. Discuss the importance of the Congo River to this narrative.||Choose a work from the list of college-bound reading. How does geography inform the symbolic meaning of the work?||People prefer autonomy and choice. (Pink)|
Goal-Setting with Students
Return to Face-to-Face
School during COVID-19 has put education in an interesting spot. Keeping class sizes small is necessary, students staying at home to protect loved ones is necessary, and continuing to move on with life and education is necessary. The question arises, how do we do all of these things in a way that they are effective and meaningful with zero precedent?
In Gwinnett County, the district decided to utilize a hybrid teaching model. Families were given the option to learn virtually or come to school and learn face-to-face. Teachers were poised with the task of addressing both of these groups simultaneously. With minimal training and limited time, teachers began retooling their entire curriculum to work in both formats. As you can imagine, in most classes it has not worked - not because it couldn’t work, but because there wasn’t enough support for the large task it was. Students were poised with the task of taking ownership of their own learning with distractions, such as sleeping or watching TV, significantly easier to access than before. As you can imagine here, for most students this has not worked - they did not have the executive function and agency to make it happen. This has lead to an astronomical number of students failing. To help remedy the problem, administrators have been reaching out to families of virtual students and having conversations about whether it may be necessary for those students to return face-to-face. When these students enter my classroom for the first time, I make it a goal to spend 15-20 minutes talking to them through the following process.
- How are you doing? How are you feeling?
- What was the biggest struggle that you had with digital learning?
- Have you talked to your teachers (preferable in person) and asked what assignments are still available to be completed?
- Look at every class and know the exact number of missing assignments. Know this number. “A lot” is ambiguous and can drain you, but you can see “10” decrease over time.
- Look at every class and think of a friend or acquaintance that you know is doing well and could support you.
- Which will help you more mentally, seeing the number of missing assignments go down quickly or seeing the grade go up quickly?
- Look at every class, which class do you feel the most in control of? Which class do you feel the least in control of?
- Lets create a game plan for that class.
Each step of the way, the student and I talk and discuss what is going on. I try to provide insight into the struggles we, as teachers, are experience and then discuss the best ways to approach talking to us to get the most open and helpful responses. The students, so far, have all said it has been really helpful. They leave our conversation feeling like they have a game plan and get to work. Is it perfect? No. Do the students still struggle after? Yes, but its natural. It is a slow process, and we talk about that. They are not failures, they just dug a hole and dug it too deep before they finally got help, but now we are going to get them out.
Music Technology Capstone
In my music technology program, I make it a point to shift from a mostly teacher-led class during their first year, to an entirely student-led class during their third year. Music technology covers a wide range of topics, from writing music to recording and mixing to composing for film, so it is important to me that the students find what they really enjoy and explore that topic further. To do this, my third year students are required to complete a capstone project. At the start of the year, the student meets with me individual so we can talk about what aspect of music technology they want to focus on. We discuss possible learning goals, possible topics to explore, and possible projects to create. From here, the student begins developing a website and blog that will document their journey. Every two week, the students are tasked with researching some aspect of their capstone, analyzing professional examples of their final project, working on their project, and writing a blog post reflecting on everything they have learned and done for the week. During these two weeks, the students meet with me twice to discuss what they have learned and what they are working on. In this meeting, we discuss possible directions and engage in curious exploration of what they have learned and what they will learn next.
Supporting Growth Towards Mastery
When supporting mastery learning, it is important to keep in mind that students learn at different paces. To help support my students learning at different paces, I have transitioned my classroom to an in-class flipped model. The reason I have made it in-class versus the traditional flipped classroom is because the students do not have access to our software at home, which limits what they can do at home. Over the course of a unit, students work through a variety of resources including instructional videos, demonstrations, articles, and quizzes to learn content before beginning their project. The great thing about this is students can work at their own pace, and refer back to a resource as needed. This allows the students to control their own learning towards mastery.
In conjunction with the flipped classroom, students have access to a variety of learning pathways when approaching different content units. Just like students learn at different paces, students have a varying types and degrees of background knowledge. Within a particular unit there are a couple of different ways that a student can tackle it, so units are designed in a way that allows students to move around to what works best for them. Additionally, students can take pre-tests to assess their current knowledge to determine if they can or should start by diving in a little deeper. This leads to a more personalized and immediate path to mastery on a particular content chunk.
For students to achieve mastery, there needs to be continuous improvement through deliberate practice (Ericsson & Pool, 2017). This means that students need immediate access to quality feedback, and there are a couple of way that I make this happen in my classroom. The first, and most immediate, piece of feedback students receive is through weekly content quizzes. Students take these on the computer, which grades them automatically so they immediately know what they need to go back and review. Additionally, these quizzes provide advice for each question what what exactly the should review and where the best place to find that content may be. The second major piece of feedback students receive is on their projects. Rather than having students submit projects to a drop box and then me grade them later, the students get my attention when they believe they are finished. I sit with the student and look at their project before taking three to five minutes to discuss with them what is working really well and things they could improve on. Depending on the improvements need, I may ask the student to make those changes and show me again, or tell them to be sure they include them in the next project. I have found that this has been extremely helpful in developing mastery.
Ericsson, A & Pool, R. (2017). Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise. Eamon Dolan/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.